An Energy-Aware Geographic Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

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    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) are characterized by multi-hop wireless links and resource constrained nodes. To improve network lifetime, energy balance is an important concern in such networks. Geographic routing has been widely regarded as efficient and scalable. However, it cannot guarantee packet delivery in some cases, such as faulty location services. Moreover, greedy forwarding always takes the shortest local path so that it has a tendency of depleting the energy of nodes on the shortest path. The matter gets even worse when the nodes on the boundaries of routing holes suffer from excessive energy consumption, since geographic routing tends to deliver data packets along the boundaries by perimeter routing. In this paper, we present an Energy-Aware Geographic Routing (EGR) protocol for MANET that combines local position information and residual energy levels to make routing decisions. In addition, we use the prediction of the range of a destination's movement to improve the delivery ratio. The simulation shows that EGR exhibits a noticeably longer network lifetime and a higher delivery rate than some non-energy-aware geographic routing algorithms, such as GPSR, while not compromising too much on end-to-end delivery delay.

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Gang Wang, Guodong Wang. An Energy-Aware Geographic Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. International Journal of Software and Informatics, 2010,4(2):183~196

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